The process of writing a number or a polynomial as the product of its factors.
For example, since x2 - 1 has the factors (x + 1) and (x - 1), it can be written as (x + 1)(x - 1).
Factorization is an important concept when working with quadratic equations. To solve the equation x2 - 4 = 0, the solutions become apparent when the equation is factorized as follows:
x2 - 4 = (x + 2)(x - 2)
As shown, we have either x + 2 = 0 or x - 2 = 0.
Hence, x = -2 or x = 2.